Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), also known as female circumcision, is defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as any procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external genitalia and/or injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons (WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA 1997).
Type I: Excision of the prepuce with or without excision of part or all of the clitoris.
Type II: Excision of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora.
Type III: Excision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching or narrowing of the vaginal opening (infibulation).
Type IV: Other forms, including pricking, piercing, or incising of the clitoris and/or labia; stretching of the clitoris and/or labia; cauterization by burning of the clitoris and surrounding tissue; scraping of tissue surrounding the opening of the vagina (angurya cuts) or cutting of the vagina (gishiri cuts); and introduction of corrosive substances or herbs into the vagina to cause bleeding or to tighten or narrow the vagina.
The 2019-20 and 2013 GDHS collected information on FGM/C from all women age 15-49 in half of the survey households. The topics covered in this chapter include knowledge and prevalence of FGM/C, type of circumcision, age at circumcision, person performing circumcision, and attitudes towards the practice of circumcision."